Who Were The Buffalo Soldiers

Who were the Buffalo Soldiers?

The Buffalo Soldiers were African Americans who fought during the Civil War; they were runaway slaves, ex-slaves and freedmen. They joined the Army as an alternative to being tracked and returned to slavery, to being mistaken for slaves and captured, to fight against slavery, and as a way to earn a living. They formed all-black units because no one would work with them, and with training, they proved themselves to be disciplined and reliable even with the prejudice, poor treatment, and the worst equipment.

Many white troops and officers didn’t want them in their unit, like George Custer, who refused to command them, to his detriment. But, the African American units had the lowest desertion rate and disciplinary actions in the army. They were so good at what they did that after the Civil War Congress passed the Army Organization Act in 1866, creating the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th, and 25th Infantry as official army units with white officers at first. But, soon they had their own officers, like Henry O. Flipper and Charles Young, the first African American Colonel in the American Army.

The Buffalo Soldiers were posted west of the Mississippi River because many whites did not want blacks with guns in their areas. So they were assigned to police and protect the West by guarding the pioneers, helping build the railroads, protecting the Pony Express relaying the US mail. They guarded and protected Wells Fargo gold shipments and the Butterfield stagecoach passengers, lines and stations.

They served in many skirmishes with the Native Americans during the Indian Wars; Apaches, Comanches, Cheyenne, Kiowas, Arapaho, and other tribes.  During these battles the Indians found the African American troops to be ferocious and tenacious fighters, honorable in battle, protective of their units which reminded them of the buffalo they so depended upon; that along with their woolly looking hair made them dub these soldiers “Buffalo Soldiers”.  Over the years, the name stuck and the 9th, 10th cavalry and the 24th, and 25th infantry carried the name with pride.

Buffalo Soldiers and the Mustang

The Buffalo Soldiers fought Native Americans for years in various skirmishes and wars, coming close to many tribes, learning how they trained their horses, mustangs they gathered from the wilderness, desert, and the mountains. They watched how the Indians gentled their horses for riding and learned to work with their own mustangs. Since the African Americans got the worst equipment and mounts, they had to learn to repair their gear and break their mounts to ride.

They trained their horses so well, they were soon tasked with working with the army’s “green-broke” mounts that they got from nearby ranchers, or that were rounded up while on the go. Gentling the mustangs as they could, using some of the methods they learned from the Indians. If they were near a large enough body of water, they would use the method of riding the horses into the water and riding until the horse got too tired to buck or  he followed the reins. They also used the method of blowing into the
horse’s nostrils to give him the soldiers’ scent and they bonded. Buffalo Soldiers were excellent with the horses and became farriers and trainers for the army mounts.

Can Bicycles Work?

The 25th Infantry was stationed at Ft. Missoula in Montana in 1897 where their commanding officer was 25-year-old James Moss, who was white and fresh out of West Point and he had the idea that bicycles would be less expensive, and more effective than horses. To test his theory, he convinced his commanding officer to let him ride bicycles to St. Louis. So, he and 20 soldiers from the 25th Infantry, plus an army surgeon and a reporter from Ft. Missoula, made a bicycle trek from Ft. Missoula, Montana to St. Louis, Missouri, a ride of approximately 1900 miles; taking them about 41 days.

The soldiers had to carry their food, ammunition, camping gear, and extra clothing on their handlebars, plus a ten pound gun on their back, the bike itself weighed close to 60 pounds. The dangerous trek led them through the Rocky Mountains;  with bad weather, roads that were barely usable, areas that they had to carry their bicycles through, questionable, sometimes really unsafe water sources, some of which made them desperately ill.

Even though they had a food drop every 100 miles or so, the quartermaster often misjudged the rations, sending enough for 4 days instead of the 6 or more days they needed, so the soldiers went hungry at times. So it was a treacherous journey through the Rockies, but the Buffalo Soldiers acquitted themselves well even taking care of injuries and repairs on their own equipment.

They proved the bicycle was a viable option to horses because they could travel almost 2 times faster than the cavalry, at about 1/3 of the cost, the bikes were silent, and in some ways easier to take care of, which meant the experiment was a success.

There was a huge crowd waiting to welcome them when they reached St. Louis, despite the prejudice of the time, but the Spanish American War broke out and the army sent the 25th Infantry to Cuba and the bicycle experiment fell to the wayside. However, the Buffalo Soldiers went on to charge San Juan Hill with Teddy Roosevelt and help win the Spanish-American War.

Who Were The Buffalo Soldiers-Women Too?

The Buffalo Soldiers as you can see were very active throughout the west and the southwest. They were ex-slaves, freedmen, and runaway slaves, and even one woman.

Cathay Williams, known as William Cathay, was originally a slave and pressed into serving the army as a cook and laundress. She was around the soldiers so she knew how they worked. She didn’t want to be dependent on anyone or be a burden on family, so she did what many ex-slaves did, she joined the army, but, since there were no women in the army at the time, she disguised herself as a man.

The physical exam then was not as thorough as it is now, so the doctor didn’t realize she was not a man and passed her. She performed regular army duties and stayed in after the civil war so she was in the army for 2 years, in the 38th Infantry which later became part of the Buffalo Soldiers before she became ill and was admitted to the Army hospital where the doctor who treated her in the hospital discovered she wasn’t a man and told her commanding officer who discharged her.

After her discharge from the army, she worked as a cook and seamstress. She got married, but that did not last long. Her years in the service began to catch up to her, and she became sickly and died probably around 1893 or 94.

In 2016 there was a bust of her placed in the garden of the Richard Allen Cultural Center, in Leavenworth, Kansas, honoring her as the first female in the US Army, and the only known female Buffalo Soldier. In 2018, the Private Cathay Williams bench was unveiled in the Walk of Honor at the National Infantry Museum.


The All African American army troops known as the Buffalo Soldiers have traveled an illustrious path from slavery to conspicuous valor with dignity, integrity, and courage. They fought prejudice and poor treatment, the Indian Wars, the Spanish-American War; they helped settle the west by protecting the settlers, the US Mail, the stagecoach line, and Wells Fargo gold line. They rode bicycles through the Rocky Mountains. Out of necessity, they caught and trained their own mounts, using the mustangs that roamed the desert, plains, and mountains.

I could go on and on and on about the Buffalo Soldiers, but I hope this small piece of history gives you enough to answer the question of “Who were the Buffalo Soldiers”? If you have further questions or want more hands-on info, visit the Buffalo Soldier Museum at Ft. Huachuca, Arizona, where we went while on Buffalo Soldier Quest, riding mustangs through the desert from El Frida, AZ to Tucson, AZ; The National Buffalo Soldier Museum in Houston, Texas; the Buffalo Soldier Museum in Tacoma, Washington; or the National Museum of African American History and Culture at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC. You can also contact a Buffalo Soldier re-enactor group of which there are several.

Thank you for sharing a trip back to the wild west.  I hope you will join me on other journeys


Breaking A Wild Mustang: History of Wild Mustangs


We’ve gentled our mustang, now what?

Saddle up

So, we got a saddle on our mustang, but let’s go back a bit. We need to take a look at the mustangs’ history so we can relate to where he came from and kind of understand what makes a mustang a mustang.

Mustangs are a sturdy, surefooted animal that usually stands about 14 -15 hands high; they have thick, strong legs making him ideal for ranch work or transporting people and goods over rough terrain.

Breaking a Wild Mustang: History of the Mustang

Mustangs are not really wild, technically they are considered feral because they are descendants of the Spanish or Iberian horses that were domesticated and brought back to North America in the 16th century. Some mustangs escaped, or were released, reverting to the wild; roaming free mostly in the south and the west.

They were called mustangs from the Spanish word “mustengo” which means stray horse or stray beast.  For years ranchers hunted and killed mustangs’ because they got into the cattle’s pastures, leaving the cattle short. The more people moved west, the smaller the mustang’s range became. Soon they were labeled as pests and nuisances, and basically the ranchers and settlers declared open season on them, hunting them for sport and for pet food.

Indians and the Mustang

Native Americans made better use of them; food, breaking the mustangs’ to ride, moving their villages, and to use as currency in trade. and for war on their enemies. They had their own methods of “breaking” a mustang; which differed from the cowboys who would get into the saddle and hold on, if he got bucked off, he would just keep getting back on until the horse was exhausted or the rider got hurt.

One method the Indians used was putting the horse in water deep enough that the horse can’t just run out and he could buck until he got tired.  Another way is to let the horse get his scent by softly blowing into the horse‘s nostrils, I consider these methods gentling rather than breaking.

This is the method I prefer, although it takes longer and requires a lot of patience, it is easier on the body, both yours and the horses’. The Indians soon became the horsemen of the plains, especially the Comanche and the Apache, frightening off settlers and going to war against their enemies, moving their villages quickly when necessary. Mustangs were perfect for riding through the mountainous areas the Apaches lived in.

Indians, Mustangs and the Buffalo Soldiers

The Indians called the all black cavalry soldiers (the 9th and 10th cavalry) “Buffalo Soldiers” out of respect because they reminded them of the buffalo; tenacious, courageous, their wooly hair; and they treated the Indians with respect. Some of the soldiers were even taken into the tribe and taught the Indian method of training mustangs’. The buffalo soldiers became the best at handling the “green broke” horses the cavalry got from the nearby ranchers. The soldiers of the ninth and tenth cavalry usually had the worst equipment and animals, so it was imperative that they be good at training their animals and repairing their gear. The Army even paid some of them to break the new horses for the rest of the troops.

The Buffalo Soldiers soon made a name for themselves, not just for their expertise with horses, but because they were awesome fighters and good soldiers, with the lowest desertion rate in the Army. They fought in the Indian Wars, the Spanish war; they rode with Teddy Roosevelt in the Battle of San Juan Hill. They protected the Pony Express, the Butterfield stagecoach lines, Wells Fargo, and the pioneers. Many of them earned the Medal of Honor, although most were awarded posthumously. (You can visit the Buffalo Soldiers Museum in Ft. Huachuca, AZ, Tacoma, WA, or Houston, TX).

Mustangs Today

The mustang has gone from being hunted by ranchers for grazing on their land to being hunted for food (dog, cat and human), and sport to being protected, largely due to the efforts of Velda Johnston, AKA “Wild Horse Annie” and thousands of other people who advocated for humane treatment of the wild horses. The BLM started the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act in 1971; a program that allows the round-up of mustangs’ from over populated herd areas for adoption. Another group called the Mustang Heritage Foundation was established in 2001 to help with mustang adoption. They have assisted with about 10,000 adoptions of BLM held mustangs’. Since then there have been initiatives by the Department of the Interior to care for wild horses.


Most people consider any wild or feral horse a mustang, and so do I, but technically only horses descended from the original Spanish or Iberian horses are mustangs’, but over the centuries, they have bred with many other breeds, including thoroughbreds, quarter horses, draft horses and others. The major traits of the mustang are: 14 or 15 hands tall, about 800 – 900 pounds, sturdy legs, stocky, built for stamina and speed. Mustangs can be any color, bay, black, roan (strawberry, blue, bay) sorrel, paint and any combination.

Although the mustang has suffered through the years since it has been re-introduced to America, almost to the brink of extinction again, it has endured and is still going strong. You can adopt one through the BLM or other organizations. They make for a good riding animal and a good ranch stock, so if you have a ranch or are looking for a riding horse, think about adopting a mustang.

This is a very brief history of the mustang, Buffalo Soldiers, and Native Americans. I can’t say that I am an expert on either, but I was raised in the era of the cowboys and Indians. After falling “in love” with the old west with The Lone Ranger and Tonto, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp and those guys; with Silver, Trigger, Scout and others, I discovered that Hollywood left out a lot of  information so I went to my go to place, the library and did a lot of research on what was then my favorite subject: the wild west. Later, I had some hands-on experience with mustangs’ as I gentled my mustang and rode some others. I learned more about the Buffalo Soldiers from some Buffalo Soldiers re-enactors and the quests we went on in Arizona, DC, and other places, and about Native Americans from a Crow Medicine Man.

Thank you for joining me on my journey into the past and I look forward to another trip soon.



Breaking a Wild Mustang

“My” Mustang

I am a city girl, so imagine my surprise when it was decided that since I was new and still learning I was charged with breaking a wild mustang because he was new and still learning.  He had just been captured and nobody else wanted anything to do with him.  I learned two new terms then:  “skitzy” and blue roan, both pertaining to the mustang I was tasked with breaking.  His name was Bluewater, and you guessed it, he was “skitzy”; (afraid of everything and everyone), and he was a blue roan:  a mixture of white and black blended together to look gray to me.

12019 / Pixabay

For those of us who are wondering, roan is a color that is a mixture of white blended equally with another color, like black; making a blue roan, sorrel, or bay, making a strawberry or red roan, etc.  Just think about a salt and pepper grey mixture in a person.

Building Trust While Breaking A Mustang

Needless to say, trust was not in Bluewater’s vocabulary, and I really didn’t trust this 1,600 lb creature that had just been snatched out of the wilderness, but we had to come to grips with each other.

Bluewater stood about 14 or 15 hands high, was thick and sturdy with a white blaze on his face.  He had white running through his mane and tail, with two white stockings.  Building trust takes a great deal of patience and consistency.  So, I sang to him.  Every evening I would go to the picket line or the tack trailer where he was tied and sing to him when I fed him.  Every morning at feeding time, I would do the same;  lullabies, songs, sometimes just notes or tunes, sometimes I would just talk, Bluewater was privy to many confidences I couldn’t share with anyone else.

It didn’t really matter so long as I was there; I like to think he liked my voice.  It worked both ways, Blue helped me work through my grief when my mom passed.  I helped him work through the loss of his herd and he began to look for me.

Now, your circumstances may be slightly different.   You probably have a barn and a corral or some structure in which to work.  The premise is basically the same, though, first, gain his trust.  Let him know you will be there with him; after all, you are now his herd.

bones64 / Pixabay

Sometimes you need a sounding board, someone to talk to, to cry on;  someone who won’t judge you or tell you that you should……  Your mustang needs the same, someone to talk to or be with; you removed him from his environment, his family, so you get to replace them; you, in essence, become his herd.

So start at his stall, talk with him.  Take a treat to give him when he lets you touch him.  Touch and talk or sing, treat;  groom, talk and treat. Soon you can rub all over him with no problem, you can groom him the same way once you get him used to the brushes and curry comb.  You are going to introduce him to the grooming tools just like you introduced him to the halter.  Don’t think this will be a piece of cake.

There will be setbacks.  There will be times you wish you could send him back to the wild, especially when it’s time to hoof pick him.  Mustangs are very touchy about their feet:  they’re his escape and if you’re holding one, that is going to hinder him.

Bluewater was a master at passive-aggressive behavior; I would pick up his back hoof and instead of snatching it back or kicking out, he would just lean on me by simply shifting his weight.  I could almost hear his laughter and hear him thinking,  “Okay, what are you going to do now?”  I eventually learned to push back, to make him settle on his other feet.  But, it took a few times for us to realize that we were not going to hurt each other. That it was okay for me to pick up his feet. I wasn’t trying to hurt him.  It was also ok for him to lean, that he was not trying to crush me. Once we trusted each other, he let me hoof pick him, to check for injury, and treat any injury he had.  Just remember, patience and persistence is the key.

Shall We Go For A Walk

PixelwunderByRebecca / Pixabay

Once he lets you touch and rub him, the hard part begins.  You should have a halter and a lead rope.  Pet him like you usually do, but rub the halter and rope on him, too, let him smell it.  Talk to him all the while you are petting. Tell him what the halter is and what you’re going to do with it.

Ease the halter around his face and over his ears.  Back off if he gets testy.  It’s okay, just keep talking or singing.  When he settles back down, try again.  Be persistent, be patient, remember, this is all new to him.  You know, I keep saying “him”; an apology to all the mustang mares and fillies, I’m not ignoring you. it’s just that my mustang was a guy so I tend to think him.  But, this method works with girls too.

Yeayy, you’ve got his halter on with a lead rope;  now, that deserves a treat.  Some people give extra hay or grain, but I gave Bluewater half an apple; he loved apples. You should give him whatever treats he likes. Now, let’s go for a walk.  It may take a while for him to get used to being led, but he can do it.

Wear a pair of sturdy gloves and be prepared to be pulled and bullied.  Put steady pressure on the lead rope, don’t jerk on it.  He’s going to test you by pulling away or tossing his head, just continue to apply a steady pressure on the rope as you lead him around and keep talking or singing.  Be consistent! Do this a few times a day.  I usually did this at feeding time, leading him to his food, tying him off at the feed bucket, or leading him to his stall and letting him eat.

And Now The Fun Begins!

Next, we are going to introduce our horse to a lunge line and saddle.  Now it’s time for our mustang to learn to follow directions, left, right, stop, go.   With a lunge line, we can let him have a tiny amount of freedom.  He can move to the end of the lunge line, let him go back and forth until he gets used to the feeling and the restriction.  Using the lunge whip, teach him to stop, go, and change directions when you want.  The lunge whip does NOT ever hit the animal. It’s the sound that makes him stop and go. Again, not a piece of cake, but patience and persistence will take him to the next step which is the saddle and rider.

To get him accustomed to the saddle and your weight, rub him with the saddle blanket, lean on him and across his back. so he can feel your weight.  As he becomes more familiar with your weight and closeness, you can lay the saddle blanket on him.  He will usually tolerate the blanket.  It’s all that other stuff associated with a saddle that he probably won’t like.  Such as the girth, stirrups, and cinch.  (All the stuff that bang and tightens!)

Ease the saddle on him while you are still leaning on his back, if he lets it stay on, tighten the cinch.  Let him get used to the saddle by putting him on the lunge line for a few turns with the saddle on.

A Ride Anyone?

Breaking a mustang turned out to be more fun than I thought.  It also was harder than I thought and more time-consuming.  When I finally rode him, it turned out he had an excellent gait; smooth, even, comfortable.  He didn’t have a tantrum and start bucking, he knew I was fragile and he didn’t want to break me.  We went on to have a great relationship and a fun time.  When he untied the knots on the picket line and ran around all over the place with the other horses and mules, they woke me up to come sing to him to get him back on the picket line.  This took a while plus a couple of apples, but we made it back safely.

That showed me that the time and effort I spent breaking Bluewater was well spent.  Now, we have a mustang that is a great ride! Showing a great disposition and willing to let others ride him.  We did it with no broken bones, nor did we break Bluewater’s spirit.  He trusts us to care for him and we trust him not to throw us for no reason.

About Pat

This is a good spot to introduce myself and to welcome you to my website, I am embarking on a new venture and I want you to join me. Thank you for checking out my site.

Welcome, and enjoy.


I am a 76 year young grandmother living in Arizona with my grandson and my cat, Cloud. Originally from Cleveland, OH, it was a long journey to sunny Arizona.

I worked in the telecommunication industry for about 18 years in two stretches; 10 years, then took a buyout. From there I worked for a company that took care of troubled teenagers in a wilderness, wagon train, and sailing settings. Now, that was a job I probably would have volunteered for. We lived in tipis or a covered wagon or on a boat, depending on where we were  “stationed”. I took care of the kids and helped with the mustangs and the kids took care of the wagons and the animals.  One of the mustangs I helped was a blue roan named Bluewater. I was successful in gentling him to ride.

I left there when my daughter got pregnant and was experiencing some difficulty with it. I still cry at times about leaving. But my grandson was worth it. After he was born, I went back to the phone company for another 8 years, until I could take early retirement.

I was so used to working; I found a part-time position at one of the universities in Cleveland.  And after 5 years there, I went back to being involved with troubled youth in an urban environment while trying to start a dude ranch and working with some Buffalo Soldiers re-enactors. My dude ranch did not get off the ground (no investors, no help).  But, I still have hope.

My daughter moved to California and I wound up there and from there to wonderful Phoenix because Phoenix was half off of Orange County.  Now I am embarking on another journey into unknown territory and I look forward to you taking at least part of the trip with me.


I love mustangs and know that the key to easing them into domesticity is patience and love with a dash of gentleness thrown in. I want to help others realize there is a different way to train a mustang and perhaps there will be more mustangs adopted.

jmrockeman / Pixabay

I think if more people realized that mustangs, though they are wild, can be gentled to the saddle which is not as hard on the body as breaking them, they may feel better about adopting one. It is easier on the mustang and easier on the trainer.



The purpose of my website is to educate people about mustangs, introduce “my” mustang. and to remind folks of some history about Arizona and the West.

If you ever need a hand or have any questions, feel free to leave them below and I will be more than happy to help you out.

All the best,

Pat Pettie